Bsf bit set f
Another very interesting set of instructions is the ones that have to do with the bits of a byte. The 16F88 is an 8-bit micro controller. This means that each byte will have 8 bits. With this instructions you can set a bit within a register. The Status is not affected with this instruction. The 'b' can be a number from 0 to 7 corresponding to a bit position.
With this instructions you can clear a bit within a register. This instruction can be used for conditional execution of instructions. The two last lettes 'SS' stand for Skip if Set. Otherwise it will be replaced with a 'NOP' instruction and shall not be executed. The two last lettes 'SC' stand for Skip if Clear.
PIC Tutorial 2 - The Registers
This instruction is used to swap the nibbles of a register. When executed, the bits will be swapped with the bits If d is 0 the result is stored in the W register, if d is 1 the result is stored back to the file register 'f'.
If this ;port pin is output, the corresponding pin will become HIGH. If this ;port pin is output, the corresponding pin will become LOW. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of the author.
Read the Disclaimer All trademarks used are properties of their respective owners. All rights reserved. Bit Orientated Instructions Another very interesting set of instructions is the ones that have to do with the bits of a byte.
If the bit 'b' in file register 'f' is 1, then the following instructions is not executed and a 'NOP' is executed instead. If the bit is 0, the instructions is executed normally. If the bit 'b' in file register 'f' is 0, then the following instructions is not executed and a 'NOP' is executed instead. If the bit is 1, the instructions is executed normally. The upper and lower nibbles of file register 'f' are exchanged.
But if you have questions please use the forum instead to post it. Thank you. A well presented explanation of the workings of pic devices. Disclaimer Book Contents Discussion forum. NEW in h eaven! New Theory: AC electric motor working principle.Think of a register as a piece of paper where you can look at and write information on. The figure below shows the register file map inside the PIC16F First thing you will notice is that it is split into two - Bank 0 and Bank 1.
Bank 0 is used to manipulate the data. An example is as follows: Let us say we want to make one bit on Port A high. First we need to go to Bank 1 to set the particular bit, or pin, on Port A as an output.
We then come back to Bank 0 and send a logic 1 bit 1 to that pin. These are located at addresses 85h and 86h respectively. To program a pin to be an output or an input, we simply send a 0 or a 1 to the relevant bit in the register. Now, this can either be done in binary, or hex. We personally use both, as the binary does help visualize the port.
If you are not conversant with converting from binary to hex and vice versa, then use a scientific calculator. So, on Port A we have 5 pins, and hence 5 bits. The bits are arranges in exactly the same way as the pins, in other words bit 0 is RA0, bit 1 is RA1, bit 2 is RA2 and so on. Note that bit zero is on the right, as shown:. To read if a pin is high or low on our port pins, we can perform a check to see if the particular corresponding bit is set to high 1 or set to low 0.
The W register is a general register in which you can put any value that you wish. Once you have assigned a value to W, you can add it to another value, or move it. If you assign another value to W, its contents are overwritten.
We are going to give you some example code on what we have just learnt. We are just trying to show how the above is actually programmed and introduce a couple of instructions along the way. We are going to set up Port A as per the example above. First, we need to switch from Bank 0 to Bank 1. The letter F means that we are going to use a memory location, or register.
We are using two numbers after this instruction — 03h, which is the STATUS register address, and the number 5 which corresponds to the bit number. W e are putting the binary value the letter b means the number is in binary into our general purpose register W. We could of course have done this in hex, in which case our instruction would be:.
Either works. This instruction does the opposite of BSF. The two numbers that follow are the address of the register, in this case the STATUS register, and the bit number, in this case bit 5. Read this through a couple of times, until it is you can follow it. So far we have looked at 4 instructions.The instructions are usually programmed into the Flash memory of the processor, and automatically executed by the microcontroller on startup.
PICmicro chips have a Harvard architectureand instruction words are unusual sizes. Originally, bit instructions included 5 address bits to specify the memory operand, and 9-bit branch destinations.
Later revisions added opcode bits, allowing additional address bits. In the instruction set tables that follow, register numbers are referred to as "f", while constants are referred to as "k". Bit numbers 0—7 are selected by "b". The "d" bit selects the destination: 0 indicates W, while 1 indicates that the result is written back to source register f.
The C and Z status flags may be set based on the result; otherwise they are unmodified. Add and subtract but not rotate instructions that set C also set the DC digit carry flag, the carry from bit 3 to bit 4, which is useful for BCD arithmetic. Memory operands are also referred to as "registers". Most are simply general-purpose storage RAMwhile some locations are reserved for special function registers.
Except for a single accumulator called Walmost all other registers are memory-mapped, even registers like the program counter and ALU status register.
The other exceptions, which are not memory-mapped, are the return address stack, and the tri-state registers used to configure the GPIO pins.
The instruction set does not contain conditional branch instructions. Instead, it contains conditional skip instructions which cause the following instruction to be ignored. A conditional skip followed by an unconditional branch performs a conditional branch. The skip instructions test any bit of any register. The ALU status register is one possibility. Memory operands are specified by absolute address ; the location is fixed at compile time.
To provide indirect addressing, a pair of special function registers are provided:. This mechanism also allows up to bytes of memory to be addressed, even when the instruction set only allows 5- or 7-bit memory operands.
Models with more registers special function registers plus RAM than fit into the instruction provide multiple banks of memory, and use one of two mechanisms for accessing them:. PIC processors with more than words of program use paged memory. The internal program counter and return stack are as wide as necessary to address all memory, but only the low 8 bits are visible to software in the PCL "PC low" register. Of the models with extended RAM, most e.Download zipped tutorial files.
This simple program repeatedly switches all the output pins high and low. The next line 'org 0x' sets the start address, it does vary across the PIC range, but most modern ones start from the lowest address - zero. The 'bcf' Bit Clear File at the end of these five lines, sets RP0 back to '0' and returns to 'bank 0'. The 'movlw', as before, moves a literal value into the W register, although this time the value passed is a binary value instead of the hexadecimal 0x00signified by the 'b' at the start of the value, in this case it's simply zero, and this value is then transferred to the two TRIS registers TRIState A and B.
This completes the setting up of the chip, we can now start the actual 'running' part of the program, this begins with a label 'Loop', the last command 'goto Loop' returns the program to here, and it loops round for ever. The next two instructions are 'nop' 'NO Operation', these simply take 1uS to execute, and do nothing, they are used to keep the outputs high for an extra 2uS.
Following that we have a 'movlw 0x00' which moves 0x00 0 decimal, binary to the W register, then we transfer them to the ports as before, this sets all 16 outputs low. The last 'goto Loop' instruction goes back and runs this section of the program again, and thus continues switching the port pins high then low.
As you will have noticed from the first part, the LED's don't flash!. This isn't strictly true, they do flash - but much too quickly to be visible. As the PIC runs at 4MHz each instruction only takes 1uS to complete except for 'jump' instructions, which take 2uSthis causes the LED's to flash tens of thousands of times per second - much too quick for our eyes!. This is a common 'problem' with PIC programming, it runs far faster than the world we are used to, and often we need to slow things down!.
This second program also repeatedly switches all the output pins high and low, but this time introduces a time delay in between switching. This simply adds a couple of extra lines in the main program, 'call Delay', this is a call to a subroutine, a part of the program which executes and then returns to where it was called from.
The routine is called twice, once after the LED's are turned on, and again after they are turned off. All the 'Delay' subroutine does is waste time, it loops round and round counting down until it finishes and returns. The extra part added at the beginning of the program cblock to endc allocates a couple of variables count1 and count2 to two of the 'general purpose file registers', these start at address 0x20 - the cblock directive allocates the first variable to 0x20, and subsequent ones to sequential addresses.
The 'Delay' routine delays mS, set in it's first line movlw d'' - the 'd' signifies a decimal number, easier to understand in this case - so we turn on the LED's, wait mS, turn off the LED's, wait another mS, and then repeat.TUTORIAL Penetasan Maggot Black Soldier Fly
This makes the LED's flash 2 times per second, and is now clearly visible. By altering the value d'' you can alter the flash rate, however as it's an eight bit value it can't go any higher than d'' 0xff hexadecimal. This routine introduces a new command 'decfsz' 'Decrement File and Skip on Zero', this decrements the file register specified in this case either count2, or count1 and if the result equals zero skips over the next line.
So this first section using it. There are huge advantages in using subroutines, a common routine like this may be required many times throughout the program, by storing it once as a subroutine we save lots of space.They allow us to move, set and clear single bits in registers or numbers that we specify.
At the end of this tutorial we will show you a program that will produce a set of running lights that go one way, then the other way.
BSF — Bit Scan Forward
We saw this done previously when we looked at the exclusive OR function, where we Exclusively ORed the ports with a word. We have already seen a couple of bit operations when we set up the ports on the PIC, and we will repeat their use here. This instruction will clear a bit that we specify in a register that we specify. The syntax is:. For example, if we wanted to set the third bit in stored in location 0C to 0, we would enter:.
This instruction will set any bit we specify to 1 in any register that we specify. We used this previously to go from Page 0 to Page 1. So far we have set or cleared a bit in a register. But what if we want to just simply test if a bit is a 1 or a 0 in a register? This instruction will test the bit we specify in the register. If the bit is a 0, the instruction will tell the PIC to skip the next instruction. We would use this instruction if we wanted to test a flag, such as the carry flag.
For example, if we wanted to test if the Carry flag had been set to 1 after we have added two numbers, then we would enter the following:. If the status of the bit is a 1, then the instruction immediately following BTFSC will be carried out. If it is set to a 0, then the next instruction is skipped.
The following section of code shows where it might be used:. Otherwise, the goto command will be carried out. The syntax is quite simply:. For example, if we had and we used RLF, then we would have Now, what happens if we have and carried out the RLF instruction? Well, the 1 will be placed in the carry flag. If we carried out the RLF instruction again, the 1 will reappear back at the beginning.
The same happens, but in reverse, for the RRF instruction. The example below demonstrates this for the RLF instruction, where we have shown the 8 bits of a register, and the carry flag :.
We are now going to give you an example code which you can compile and run. It will produce a running light starting at PortA bit 0, going to PortB bit 8 and then back again. Connect LEDs to all of the Port pins. You will see some of the bit operations mentioned in this tutorial. Engineering Hobby Projects. Engineering Projects.Being "natural" means nothing. Poison Ivy is natural, doesn't mean you should eat it (I know I know hyperbole, but the point is that "natural" is just a marketing term).
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A common misconception in weight loss is that you need to eat less, when in reality the opposite holds true. If you restrict your calories, you will eventually slow your metabolism. I was in danger of developing Type 2 diabetes. I was advised to cut out sugar and to cut right down on carbohydrates. Any carbs eaten should be wholemeal flour. I was told this was because carbohydrates are broken down in the body into glucose (sugar) Refined flour is metabolised quickly, wholemeal is slow burn and so you don't get a big glucose spike.
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Carbohydrate is either a sugar, a starch (complex carbohydrate) or fibre.So if there are 100 input fields, each split will only consider 10 fields randomly chosen from the 100. Every split will choose a new subset of fields. Although randomize could be used for other purposes, it's intended for growing random decision forests. To grow tree models for a random forest, set randomize to true and select a sample from the dataset.
Traditionally this is a 1. Once a model has been successfully created it will have the following properties. This will be 201 upon successful creation of the model and 200 afterwards. Make sure that you check the code that comes with the status attribute to make sure that the model creation has been completed without errors. This is the date and time in which the model was created with microsecond precision.
It has an entry per each field type (categorical, datetime, numeric, and text), an entry for preferred fields, and an entry for the total number of fields. It includes a very intuitive description of the tree-like structure that makes the model up and the field's dictionary describing the fields and their summaries.
In a future version, you will be able to share models with other co-workers or, if desired, make them publicly available. This is the date and time in which the model was updated with microsecond precision. A Model Object has the following properties: Creating a model is a process that can take just a few seconds or a few days depending on the size of the dataset used as input and on the workload of BigML's systems.
The model goes through a number of states until its fully completed.
Through the status field in the model you can determine when the model has been fully processed and ready to be used to create predictions. Support is a number from 0 to 1 that specifies the minimum fraction of the total number of instances that a given branch must cover to be retained in the resulting tree.
If you repeat the support parameter in the query string, the last one is used. Non-parseable support values are ignored. Value is a concrete value or interval of values (for regression trees) that a leaf must predict to be kept in the returning tree.
PIC Tutorial One - LED's
Intervals can be closed or open in either end. Confidence is a concrete value or interval of values that a leaf must have to be kept in the returning tree. The specification of intervals follows the same conventions as those of value. Since confidences are a continuous value, the most common case will be asking for a range, but the service will accept also individual values.
It's also possible to specify both a value and a confidence. Finally, note that it is also possible to specify support, value, and confidence parameters in the same query. Filtering and Paginating Fields from a Model A model might be composed of hundreds or even thousands of fields.
Thus when retrieving a model, it's possible to specify that only a subset of fields be retrieved, by using any combination of the following parameters in the query string (unrecognized parameters are ignored): Fields Filter Parameters Parameter TypeDescription fields optional Comma-separated list A comma-separated list of field IDs to retrieve.
To update a model, you need to PUT an object containing the fields that you want to update to the model' s base URL.